Last and First Men attempts to put the emergence of communism in the larger context of the early modern, with its complex innovation scenarios. A leftist new society of communism must compute not just the issues of economy, but also of religion, secularism, and reformation. No easy feat. The narrow view of early positivistic marxism in the rise of nineteenth century scientism produces a format too reductionist to deal with modernity, let alone the legacy of religion. Since the rise of the left is in the direct line of descent from the Reformation, the confusion is not surprising in the sudden reversal of modes to the purely ‘materialistic’. Neither side can get it right: the religious modernity is too incoherent, and the secular modernity is too low-balled. The resolution is clearly foreseen in figures like Kant, and then Hegel, but somehow early marxism couldn’t learn the lesson they pointed to.