The issue of tactics has been confused by misplaced Gandhi-ism. The issue is in fact not clear, but the reality of history is the guide of last resort, and there, despite our necessary caution about violence, we see that all of the revolutions of the early modern came well before the Gandhian challenge to revolutionary tactics. Gandhi’s legacy, we should note, was from the tradition of Jainism. But Jain teertankers were not social activists, but meditators, often ‘meditating unto death’, refusing even to step on insects total non-violence as a gateway out of life. It was Gandhi who turned this into a political tactic, but didn’t he confuse the issues?