Last and First Men shows the evidence (see previously post) for something that drives cultures ‘up hill’ so to speak, and it shows us what ‘evolution’ has to be in order to realize complex civilizations in action. It is here, if we are careful, that we find, in the modern transition, the evidence that ‘revolution’ becomes explicit in the uphill realization of modernity. We have an elegant example of how civilization, with men to carry out the details, exhibits a dynamic of emergent entities. We must be careful here for this kind of argument can be abused, and most of the modern revolutions were chaotic affairs, often appearing as failures. But the basic point is clear: the realization of democracy required a revolution. We should consider the relevance of this as we contempt the issue of postcapitalism.