Still, most scholars reject Vinci’s theories. Here are the main reason of criticism:
His thesis is not confirmed by convincing archeological proofs: as results from the excavation, the Baltic coasts were populated by Neolithic cultures, using ceramic crockery and not bronze objects, at the time suggested by Vinci. The Scandinavian Bronze Age, in fact, began later.
Homeric poems have been subjected to probably deep variations during the centuries of oral transmission. Several expressions, typical of oral tradition, are thought to have developed when the poems were first written down, mingled with others representing a previous age. Therefore, it is impossible to ascribe the current Homeric texts to a precise historical period.
Homeric toponyms are compared with the current or medieval Baltic ones, on the basis that they have not undergone variations during the oral transmission period. In addition, the discovered affinities in the book usually rest on simple assonances, without a real correspondence with the phonological processes of the concerned languages. For instance, if the word ????? (“Troy”) had been assimilated in Finnish, it would be something like Roija and not Toija. Finnish does not admit more than one consonant in the first syllable of a word: while adapting foreign words to its own peculiarities, it tends to keep the liquid consonant [r] rather than the occlusives (for example, the German word strand, “beach”, is maintained in Finnish as ranta.)
Some localities described by Homer, in particular the farthest ones from the Greek world, such as in many others literary works, would not be close reports to reality, but fantasy inventions.
Even on the basis that all Homeric localities correspond with a real place, studies have been pursued which show there are actually precise and systematic similarities between the world depicted in the Odyssey and the Mediterranean Sea, not only regarding the physical conformation, but even in the kind and direction of the winds. By and large, mistakes (such as identifying Ithaca as the most western island in its archipelago) would recur in a limited number and would often be explicable.