These constraints transformed the results from what Gray’s team has published: Garrett, Chang, and their colleagues found that the origins of PIE were about 6000 years ago, consistent with the steppe hypothesis but not the Anatolian, because the farming migration out of the Middle East was 8000 years ago. Once the original PIE speakers began to sweep out of the steppes about 4500 years ago, their languages spread and diversified, Garrett’s team says.
I have commented many times on all this and while I am not dogmatic on anything the thesis for ‘somewhere in the vicinity north of Black sea or the environs’ is the default thesis to which we all return.
But even here we should be careful. I talked yesterday about the rate of language change and the way that Vedic simply couldn’t have existed at 10K ya…
4500 years ago (2500 BCE) is the only date that makes sense in this field.
8000 years ago, is, again, a problem. Actually 4500 is itself a bit tight, but probaly OK: we see Vedic Sanskrit and Homeric Greek (Mycenaean) in the phase 2K to 1K. Less than a millennium from 4500 ya. This could work….
I have no opinion about Anatolia.