I was a little hard on this book and the essay here, but it is true that Kautsky’s analysis is a funny kind of classic. But the whole issue summarizes why I am pushing for a neo-marxism: at this point only a tiny minority will ever accept the framework of Kautsky’s historical materialism on religion. This perspective misses the fact that whatever we think of it Christianity was a spiritual movement. That is not even the same as some kind of assertion of theism, or religiosity. In fact the whole question is very difficult, as a perusal of my Enigma of the Axial Age will make obvious. This movement is part of the larger framework of the Axial period, and its understanding requires more than historical materialism.