There have been many critiques of the gene concept, but the best, or most general, is that of the ‘eonic effect’. Many have tried to show how the gene is not really the central focus of evolution, the overall matrix of the organism being thus the real object of evolution.
The ‘macro’ or ‘eonic’ effect shows the clearest critique because it doesn’t use genetics at all. It shows ‘evolution’ driven by the hidden abstractions or form factors potential to the realization of particular forms. Evolution’s driver is thus at its root beyond direct observation. This is the reality that darwinisists, and scientists, cannot deal with, forcing a myth with an ideology on the public in the name of producing an exact science.
And the result is transparent as the usual hitjob at altruism so prominent as economic ideology, now in the neoliberal age.